I’m sure you have heard this before!
If you want to write a good literature review you need to develop your critical skills.
‘But how?!’ – you may ask.
Physics Journal Club Presentation, R. T. Birge Lecturing seated at left: Lawrence and Oppenheimer [UARC PIC 04:268]
Simple: Join a Journal Club!
(and if you don’t have one to join, create your own – keep reading and I’ll tell you how)
A journal club is a group of people who meet regularly to critically evaluate recent articles in the academic literature and to discuss in detail a specific research paper.
The members of the club can range from PhD students and post-docs, to more experienced researchers and highly accomplished professors. A mix of people at different stages in their careers is a blessing to further stimulate discussion (even though it may feel slightly intimidating to the inexperienced student).
Regardless of its composition, a journal club will help you to:
- Keep up-to-date with the latest literature in your field
- Become a more careful reader (and therefore a better writer!)
- Learn and practice your critical skills
- Improve your presentation skills
- Build your confidence and ability to evaluate the work of others
- Promote your sense of belonging (to your research group or department)
- Turn a social occasion into an enjoyable educational treat.
Of course, you may be in the unfortunate position of not having a journal club to join.
If so, just start one yourself!
Ideally, you should aim for a group of four or five members, but again don’t let this stop you dead in your tracks. All you need to make a start is just one more person. So, ask a fellow PhD student or an early-career post-doctoral fellow from your own discipline.
And if you are still complaining that you can’t (I know… you are the only student in your group!), then consider creating a virtual Journal Club that meets online.
Once you have found and assembled your buddies, here is what you need to do:
- Schedule your meetings to take place regularly (ideally once a week, for about one hour)
- Design a facilitator before each meeting (make sure this role is taken in turn by all members of the group)
- The facilitator chooses a paper for discussion and distributes it to all members a few days before the meeting
- The facilitator circulates a few questions about the paper (this is optional, but may prove useful to focus people’s minds to specific issues, especially if the paper is very long)
- Each member commits to reading the paper before the meeting and to think about the questions posed
- At the meeting, the facilitator presents a brief overview of the paper. Keep this informal: no need to prepare slides or anything. A piece of chalk and a blackboard is all you need to write down key points if necessary
- The facilitator initiates the discussion and encourages everyone to take part (see below for suggestions of possible topics)
- Before the meeting ends, agree on the date, time and facilitator for the following meeting
- Make sure you start and finish at the agreed times.
If you are in doubt as to what to discuss about, here some pointers to get you started (feel free to add your own)
Description of the study:
- What was the purpose of the research?
- Why is the research important in the wider context?
- Were the key objectives clearly stated?
- What was the nature of the study (experimental, theoretical, computational)?
- Was the literature review well presented and sufficiently up to date?
- Was any major recent study left out? If so try to figure out why
- Is the paper clear and well written?
Approach and Analysis
- What was the method used in the study? Can you clearly identify it?
- How were data obtained and analysed?
- Is/was there any fault in the approach used?
- Is the statistical analysis of the data appropriate and sound?
Results and Conclusions
- What were the key findings of the study?
- Were results clearly presented and properly discussed?
- Did the author(s) offer an interpretation of their results?
- Did the study suffer from any potential limitations? Were these discussed?
- Could the study be replicated?
- Was the study successful in solving the research gap(s) identified?
- What additional questions does the study raise?
I hope this post serves you well.
A final secret for success?
Just take action now. Go talk to one of your colleagues or friends, share this post and arrange your first meeting.
I’ll wait to hear from you 🙂